Selected bibliography of evidence-based research

Abbass, A. A., Kisely, S. R., Town, J. M., Leichsenring, F., Driessen, E., De Maat, S., Gerber, A., Dekker, J., and Rabung, S. (2014). Short-term psychodynamic psychotherapies for common mental disorders. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2014(7), 1- 108.   


Anderson, J. (2006). Well-suited partners: psychoanalytic research and grounded theory. Journal Child Psychotherapy, 32(3):329-348 


Auerbach, J.S. (2014). Psychodynamic psychotherapy research: Evidence-based practice and practice-based evidence, Eds. Raymond A. Levy, J. Stuart Ablon, and Horst Kächele, New York: Humana Press, 2011, xxxiii + 646 pp., Psychoanalytic Psychology, l31(2):276-287 


Barber, J.P. (2009) Towards a working through of core conflicts in psychotherapy research. Psychotherapy Research,19(1): 1-12


Barkham, M., Rees, A., Shapiro, D. A., Stiles, W. B., Agnew, R.M., Halstead,J.C., Alison,H. & Veronica, M.G. (1996) Outcomes of time-limited psychotherapy in applied settings: Replicating the second Sheffield Psychotherapy Project. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Vol 64(5), 1079-1085.


Bateman, A. & Fonagy, P. (1999) Effectiveness of partial hospitalization in the treatment of borderline personality disorder: A randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Psychiatry, Vol 156(10), 1563-1569.


Bateman, A. & Fonagy, P. (2001) Treatment of borderline personality disorder with psychoanalytically oriented partial hospitalization: An 18-month follow-up. American Journal of Psychiatry, Vol 158(1), 36-42.


Beebe, B. (2005). Mother-Infant research informs Mother-Infant treatment. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 60:7-46


Beebe, B. and Markese, S. (2011). Theory and research that informed the clinical approach of the Project for Mothers, Infants, and Young Children of September 11, 2001. Journal of Infant, Child & Adolescent Psychotherapy, 10(2):170-186


Bers, S.A., Harpaz-Rotem, I., Besser, A. and Blatt, S.J. (2013). An Empirical exploration of the dynamics of Anorexia Nervosa. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 30(2):188-209


Besser, A., Vliegen, N., Luyten, P. & Blatt, S.J. (2008). Systematic empirical investigation of vulnerability to postpartum depression from a psychodynamic perspective. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 25(2):392-410


Blatt, S.J. and Auerbach, J.S. (2003). Psychodynamic measures of therapeutic change. Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 23(2):268-307


Blomberg, J et al. (2001) Long-term outcome of long-term psychoanalytically oriented therapies: First findings of the Stockholm Outcome of Psychotherapy and Psychoanalysis Study. Psychotherapy Research 11(4):361-382


Bradshaw, W., Roseborough, D., Pahwa, R. and Jordan, J. (2009). Evaluation of psychodynamic psychotherapy in a community mental health center. Journal of American Academy, Psychoanalytic Dynamic Psychiatry, 37(4):665-681


Bucci, W. (1996). Research in psychoanalysis: Process, development, outcome. International Journal of Psychoanalysis 77:827-833


Bucci, W. (2001). Toward a “Psychodynamic Science”. J. American Psychonalytic Association., 49(1):57-68


Buchheim, A., Viviani, R., Kessler, H., Kächele, H., Cierpka, M., Roth, G., George, C., Kernberg, O., Bruns, G., Taubner, S. (2012). Changes in prefrontal-limbic function in major depression after 15 months of long-term psychotherapy. PLoS ONE, 7(3). Article ID e33745   


Buchholz, M. & Kächele, H. (2018). Teaching research methods to psychoanalysts: Experiences from PSAID. International Forum of Psychoanalysis, 27(2):114-120.


Burlingame, G., Seebeck, J., Janis, R., Whitcomb, K., Barkowski S., Rosendahl, J. and Strauss, B.  (2016) Outcome differences between individual and group formats when identical and nonidentical treatments, patients, and doses are compared: a 25 year meta-analytic perspective.  Psychotherapy Vol 53, No 4 446-461. 



Caleo, J. S., Stevenson, J., & Meares, R. (2001) An economic analysis of psychotherapy for border line personality disorder patients. The Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics. Vol 4(1), 3-8.


Carrere, R. (2010). Psychoanalysis conducted at reduced frequencies. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 27(2):153-163


Chiesa, M. and Fonagy, P. (1999). From the efficacy to the effectiveness model in psychotherapy research: The APP Multi-Centre Project. Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy,13(3):259-272


Chiesa, M. (2005). Can psychoanalytic research integrate and improve knowledge for clinical practice?. Scandinavian Psychoanalytic Review, 28(1):31-39


Chiesa, M., Peter Fonagy, P., & Holmes, J. (2003) When more is less. International Journal of Psychoanalysis 84:637-650


Child Psychotherapy Trust (1998) Is child psychotherapy effective for children and young people? A summary of the research. The Child Psychotherapy Trust:London


Clulow, C., Shmueli, A., Vincent, C. and Evans, C. (2002). Is empirical research compatible with clinical practice? British Journal of Psychotherapy, 19(1):33-44


Cozolino, L. (2002) The neuroscience of psychotherapy: Building and rebuilding the human brain. New York:W. W. Norton.


Cozolino, L. (2006) The neuroscience of human relationships: Attachment and the developing social brain. New York:W. W. Norton.


Curtis, R. (2014). Systematic research supporting psychoanalytic and psychodynamic treatments. Contemporary Psychoanalysis, 50(1-2):34-42


Diamond, D., Kaslow, N., Coonerty, S. and Blatt, S.J. (1990) Changes in separation-individuation and intersubjectivity in long-term treatment. Psychoanalytic Psychology. 7:362-397


Doidge, Norman. (1997) Empirical evidence for the efficacy of psychoanalytic psychotherapies and psychoanalysis: An overview. Psychoanalytic Inquiry. (Suppl), 102-150.


Doidge, Norman. (1999) Who is in psychoanalysis now? Empirical data and reflections on some common misperceptions. in Eds. Kaley, Hariette; Eagle, Morris N; et al. Psychoanalytic therapy as health care: Effectiveness and economics in the 21st century. (pp. 177-198). xvii, 295pp Hillsdale, NJ:Analytic Press,


Doidge, N. 2001 Introduction to Jeffery: Why psychoanalysts have low mortality rates Journal of American Psychoanalytic Association Winter,’01 49/1


Doidge, N., Simon, B., Lancee, W.J., First, M., Brunshaw, J., Brauer, L., Grant, D.C., Stevens, A., Oldham, J.M. and Mosher, P. (2002). Psychoanalytic patients in the U.S., Canada, and Australia. Journal of American Psychoanalytic Association, 50(2):615-627

Erle, J.B, & Goldberg, D.A. (2003) The course of 253 analyses from selection to outcome. Journal of American Psychoanalytic Association 51,1


Farber, B.A. and Nevas, D. (2001). Parents' perceptions of the effects of their child's therapy. Journal American Academy Psychoanalytic Dynamic Psychiatry, 29(2):319-330


Fonagy, P. & Campbell, C. (2015) Bad blood revisited- Attachment and psychoanalysis. British Journal of Psychotherapy, 31: 2, 229-256


Fonagy, P., Moran, G.S. (1991). Understanding psychic change in child analysis. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 72:15-22.


Fonagy, P., Target, M. (1996). Predictors of outcome in child psychoanalysis: A retrospective study of 763 cases at the Anna Freud Centre. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association. 44(1): 27-77. 


Fonagy, P., Target, M. (2002). The History and Current Status of Outcome Research at the Anna Freud Centre. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 57:27-60.


Fonagy, P., Roth, A.,  & Higgitt, A. (2005). Psychodynamic psychotherapies: Evidence-based practice and clinical wisdom. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 69:1-58.


Fonagy, P. (2012). The significance of dreams: Bridging clinical and extra-clinical research in psychoanalysis. London:Routledge  


Fonagy, P.,  Rost, F.,  Carlyle, J.,  McPherson, S.,  Thomas, R.,  Fearon, P.,  Goldberg, D. &  Taylor, D. (2015) Pragmatic  randomized controlled trial of long‐term psychoanalytic psychotherapy  for treatment‐resistant depression: The Tavistock Adult Depression Study  (TADS). World Psychiatry 14: 312– 21.


Freddi, J. (2008). Dodo birds, doctors and the evidence of evidence. International Journal of Applied Psychoanalic Studies, 5(4):238-255


Freedman, N., Hoffenberg, J.D., Vorus, N. and Frosch, A. (1999). The effectiveness of psychoanalytic psychotherapy. Journal of American Psychoanalytic Association 47(3):741-772


Friedman, R.C., Garrison, W.B., Bucci, W. & Gorman, B.S. (2005). Factors affecting change in private psychotherapy patients of senior psychoanalysts: An effectiveness study. Journal of American Academy of Psychoanalysis, 33(4):583-610.


Gabbard, G. O., Gunderson, J. G., & Fonagy, P. (2002). The place of psychoanalytic treatments within psychiatry. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59 (6):505-510 + commentaries.


Gagnon, J. and Daelman, S. (2011). An empirical study of the psychodynamics of borderline impulsivity. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 28(3):341-362


Gerber, A. (2004). Structural and symptomatic change in psychoanalysis and psychodynamic psychotherapy: a quantitative study of process, outcome and attachment. Unpublished PhD thesis, University College London. 


Gullestad, S, (2003) Adult Attachment Interview and psychoanalytic outcome studies. International Journal of Psychoanalysis 84:651 668


Hall, J., Caleo, S., Stevenson, J. & Meares, R. (2001) An economic analysis of psychotherapy for borderline personality disorder patients. The Journal of Mental Health Policy an Economics. Vol 

4(1):3-8.


Hardy, G, E., Barkham, M., Shapiro, D.A., & Reynolds, S., et al. (1995) Credibility and outcome of cognitive-behavioural and psychodynamic-interpersonal therapy. British Journal of Clinical Psychology. Vol 34(4):555-569.


Hardy, G. E., Barkham, M., Shapiro, D. A., Stiles, W. B., Rees, A., & Reynolds, S. (1995) Impact of Cluster C personality disorders on outcomes of contrasting brief psychotherapies for depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. Vol 63(6):997-1004.


Hardy, G. E., Shapiro, D A., Stiles, W. B. & Barkham, M. (1998) When and why does cognitive-behavioural treatment appear more effective than psychodynamic interpersonal treatment? Discussion of the findings from the Second Sheffield Psychotherapy Project. Journal of Mental Health. Vol 7(2): 179-190.


Hauser, S.T. (2002). Psychoanalytic practice and research: New explorations and implications. Journal of American Psychoanalytic Association, 50(3):937-938.


Hauser, S.T. (2002). The future of psychoanalytic research. J. Amer. Psychoanal. Assn., 50(2):395-405


Hauser, S.T. (2003). The Contemporary Psychoanalyst at Work: Research—Continuing Dialogues. Journal of American Psychoanalytic Association, 51(1):19-24


Heinicke, C.M. & Ramsey-Klee, D.M. (1986). Outcome of child psychotherapy as a function of frequency of session. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 14:561-588.


Hewison, D., Casey, P., & Mwamba, N. (2016). The effectiveness of couple therapy: Clinical outcomes in a naturalistic United Kingdom setting. Psychotherapy, 53(4), 377-387.


Hewison, D., Clulow, C. and Drake, H. (2014) Couple Therapy for Depression: A Clinician's Guide to Integrative Practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.   Hill , C. (2010) What do patients want? Psychoanalytic perspectives from the couch. London, UK:Karnac Books 240p


Hilsenroth, M. J. (2007). A programmatic study of short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy: assessment, process, outcome, and training. Psychotherapy Research, 17(1): 31-45


Hindle, D. (2009). Child psychotherapy and research. Journal of Child Psychotherapy, 35(3):327-329


Hoagwood, K., Hibbs, E., Brent, D., & Jensen, P. (1995) Introduction to the Special Section: Efficacy and effectiveness in studies of child and adolescent psychotherapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. Vol 63(5):683-687.


Holt, R.R. (2003). New directions for basic psychoanalytic research. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 20(2):195-213


Horn H, Geiser-Elze A, Reck C, et al. (2005) Zur Wirksamkeit psychodynamischer Kurzzeitpsychotherapie bei Kindern und Jugendlichen mit Depressionen (Efficacy of psychodynamic short-term psychotherapy for children and adolescents with depression). Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiat54:578–597.   

Infancy and parent–infant research. (2012) A randomized controlled trial of mother–infant psychoanalytic treatment: I. Outcomes on self-report questionnaires and external ratings. Journal of Child Psychotherapy, 38(2):226-236


Kachele H, Krause R, Jones E et al (2000). An Open Door review of outcome studies in psychoanalysis.In Ed. Fonagy P, London:International Psychoanalytical Association. Available at www.ipa.org.uk


Kächele H (2010) (Review) R.A. Levy & J. S. Ablon (Eds) Handbook of evidence-based psychodynamic psychotherapy. Bridging the gap between science and practice. Human Press Psychoanalytic Quarterly 79 (1): 255-264


Kam, S-E. & Midgley, N. (2006) Exploring ‘Clinical judgement’. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, Sage Publications, Vol. 11, No. 1: 27–44.


Keller W., Westhoff G., Dilg R., Rohner R., & Studt H.H. (2006). Effectiveness and utilization of health insurance benefits in long-term analyses: Results of an empirical follow-up study on the effectiveness of Jungian Analysis.  


Kennedy, E. & Midgley, N. (2007). Process and outcome research in child, adolescent and parent-infant psychotherapy: a thematic review. London: North Central London Strategic Health Authority.


Keogh, T. (2013) The internal world of the juvenile sex offender: Through a glass darkly then face to face (The Forensic Psychotherapy Monograph Series) London, UK:Karnac


Kernberg, O., Burstein, E. D., et al (1972) Naturalistic, pre-post, quasi-experimental studies. The Menninger Psychotherapy Research Project (PRP). The final report of the Menninger Foundation's Psychotherapy Research Project. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 36:1-275.


King, R (1998) Evidence-based practice: Where is the evidence? The Case of cognitive behaviour therapy and depression. Australian Psychologist, 33|:83-95.


Kirshner, L. (2015). Trauma and psychosis: A review and framework for psychoanalytic understanding. International Forum of Psychoanalysis, 24(4):216-224


Knekt, P., Lindfors, O., & Laaksonen, M.A. (2008) The effectiveness of psychoanalysis and long- and short-term psychotherapy on psychiatric symptoms during a 5-year follow-up; A quasi-experimental study. European Psychiatry, Volume 23, Supplement 2, April, pp S255-S256


Kronmüller, K., Postelnicu, I., Hartmann, M., Stefini, A., Geiser-Elze, A., Gerhold, M., Hildegard, H. and Winkelmann, K. (2005). Efficacy of psychodynamic short term psychotherapy for children and adolescents with anxiety disorders. Praxis Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr, 54(7): 559–77.   



Lamb, W. & Jones, E. (2009) The effectiveness of psychoanalysis and longer-term psychodynamic psychotherapy: A meta-analysis. Paper presented at the American Psychoanalytic Association meeting, January 2009.


Lees, J. (2005) A history of psychoanalytic research. Psychodynamic practice, Routledge, May 2005, Vol. 11, No. 2: 117–31.


Leichsenring, F. (2005) Are psychodynamic and psychoanalytic therapies effective? International Journal of Psychoanalysis Vol 86:841-868


Leichsenring, F. (2005) The Gottingen study of psychoanalytic therapy. International journal of Psychoanalysis Vol.86:433-455


Leichsenring, F; Rabung, S. et al (2008) Effectiveness of long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy: A Meta-analysis . JAMA. 300(13):1551-1565.


Leichsenring, F., & Rabung, S. (2011). Long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy in complex mental disorders: Update of a meta-analysis. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 199, 15-22.   


Leichsenring, F., Rabung, S., & Leibing, E. (2004). The efficacy of short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy in specific psychiatric disorders: a meta-analysis. Archive of General Psychiatry, 61(12):1208-1216.


Leuzinger-Bohleber, M. & Target, M. (eds) (2002) Review of ‘Outcomes of Psychoanalytic Treatment: Perspectives for Therapists & Researchers’. Journal of Child Psychotherapy, Vol 31 No 1 :126-146


Leuzinger-Bohleber, M., Stuhrast, U., Rüger, B. and Beutel, M. (2003). How to study the ‘quality of psychoanalytic treatments’ and their long-term effects on patients' well-being. International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 84(2):263-290


Leuzinger-Bohleber M & Kachele H (Eds) (2015)  An Open Door Review of Outcome and Process Studies in Psychoanalysis. Third Edition. London. International Psychoanalytical Association. 



Leuzinger-Bohleber, M., Hautzinger, M., Fiedler, G., Keller, W., Bahrke, U., Kallenbach, L., Kaufhold, J., Ernst, M., Negele, A., Schött, M., Küchenhoff, H., Günther, F., Rüger, B. & Beutel, M. (2019) Outcome of psychoanalytic and cognitive-behavioural long-term therapy with chronically depressed patients: A controlled trial with preferential and randomized allocation. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry /La Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie, 1-12.   


Leuzinger-Bohleber, M., Kaufhold, J., Kallenbach, L., Negele, A., Ernst, M., Keller, W., . . . Beutel, M. (2019b). How to measure sustained psychic transformation in long-term treatments of chronically depressed patients: Symptomatic and structural change in the LAC Depression Study  of the outcome of cognitive-behavioral and psychoanalytic long-term treatments. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 100(1), 99-127.   



Levy, K. N., Meehan, K. B., Kelly, K. M., Reynoso, J. S., Weber, M., Clarkin, J. F. & Kernberg, O. F. (2006) Change in attahment patterns and reflective function in a randomized controlled trial of Transference Focused Psychotherapy for borderline personality disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 74(6):1027-1040.


Lieberman, A. F., Van Horn, P. & Ghosh I. C. (2005). Towards evidence-based treatment: Child-Parent psychotherapy with pre-schoolers exposed to marital violence. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 44(12): 1241-8.


Lorentzen, S., Fjeldstadt, A., Ruud, T. and Hoglend, P (2015) Comparing Short- and Long-term Group Therapy: Seven-year Follow Up of a Randomized Clinical Trial. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 84; 320-321.


Luborsky, L. (2000). Psychoanalysis and empirical research. Changing ideas in a changing world: The revolution in psychoanalysis. Essays in honour of Arnold Cooper, 149-154


Luborsky, L (2001) The only clinical and quantitative study since Freud of the preconditions for recurrent symptoms during psychotherapy and psychoanalysis. International Journal of Psychoanalysis 82: 1133


Luborsky, L. (2001). The meaning of empirically supported treatment research for psychoanalytic and other long-term therapies. Psychoanalytic Dialogues, 11(4), 583-604.   


Luborsky, L., Stuart, J., Friedman, S., Diguer, L., Seligman, D.A., Bucci, W., Pulver, S., Krause, E.D., Ermold, J., Davison, W.T., Woody, G. and Mergenthaler, E. (2001). The Penn Psychoanalytic Treatment Collection. Journal of American Psychoanalytic Association, 49(1):217-233


Lush, D., Boston, M., Morgan, J. & Kolvin, I. (1998). Psychoanalytic psychotherapy with disturbed adopted and foster children: a single case follow-up study. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 3:51-69.


McDermott, F. (2003). Group work in the mental health field: Researching outcome. Australian Social work, Vol 56, No 4:352-363.


Meares R, Stevenson J, Comerford A (1999), Psychotherapy with borderline patients: I. A comparison between treated and untreated cohorts. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 33(4): 467-472.


Meares, R., Stevenson, J. & Angelo, R. (2002) Eysenck’s challenge to psychotherapy: A view of the effects 50 years on. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. Vol 36(6):812-815.


Midgley, N. & Target, M. (2005). Recollections of being in child psychoanalysis. A Qualitative study of a long-term follow-up project. The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 60:157-177.


Midgley, N., Target, M. & Smith, J. (2006). The outcome of child psychoanalysis from the patient’s point of view: A qualitative analysis of a long-term follow-up study. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 79:257-269.


Midgley, N., Anderson, J., Grainger, E. Nesic, T. & Urwin, C. (Eds.) (2009). Child psychotherapy and research: New approaches, emerging findings. London: Routledge.


Midgley, N. and Kennedy, E. (2011). Psychodynamic psychotherapy for children and adolescents: a critical review of the evidence base. Journal of Child Psychotherapy, 37(3):232-260


Milrod, B., Busch, F, Leon., AC, Shapiro, T., Aronson, A., Roiphe, J., Rudden, M., Singer, M., Goldman, H., Richter, D. Shear, M.K. (2000) Open trial of psychodynamic psychotherapy for panic disorder: A Pilot Study. American Journal of Psychiatry 157:1878-1880.


Muratori, F., Picchi, L., Bruni, G., Patarnello, M. & Romagnoli, G. (2003). A two-year follow-up of psychodynamic psychotherapy for internalising disorders in children. Journal of American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry, 42:331-339.

Pally, R. (1997) Memory:Brains systems that link past, present and future. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 78(6): 1223-1234.


Pires, A.P., Gonçalves, J. Sá, V.. Silva, A. & Sandell, R. (2016). Assessment of change in psychoanalysis: Another way of using the change after psychotherapy scales. Journal of American Psychoanalytic Association, 64(2):285-305.


Pullen, J. M., Hughes, G. C., & Tonge, B. J. (2007). Time and space: The psychotherapist’s role in connecting a Borderline adolescent with her inner and outer world through continuity, containment and reflection Poster. Paper presented at the European Society for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (ESCAP) 13th International Conference - Bridging the gaps: Integrating perspectives in child and adolescent mental health, Florence, Italy.


Pullen, J., Tonge, B., & Beaufoy, J. (2011). A four-year naturalistic follow up exploring the effectiveness of psychoanalytic psychotherapy for adolescents with serious mental illness. Paper presented at the Society for Psychotherapy Research 42nd International Meeting, Bern, Switzerland. 



Pullen, J., Dean, S., & Tonge, B. (2013). Does meeting diverse needs preclude depth? Service directors reflect upon approaches to adolescent psychotherapy and culture. Paper presented at the Society for Psychotherapy Research 44th International Meeting, Brisbane.


Reid, S., Alvarez, A. & Lee, A. (2001). The Tavistock autism workshop approach: Assessment, treatment and research. In J. Richter & S. Coates (Eds.), Autism – the search for coherence (182-192). London: Jessica Kingsley.


Research digest. (2011). Journal of Child Psychotherapy, 37(3):360-366


Research digest (2014). Evidence for efficacy of psychodynamic psychotherapy. Journal of Child Psychotherapy, 40(3):318-326


Richardson P, Kächele H, Renlund C (eds) (2004). Research on psychoanalytic psychotherapy with adults. London: Karnac.


Robertson, B.M., Banon, E., Csank, P.R. and Frank, D.E. (2004). Analysts Involved in Research. Canadian Journal of Psychoanalysis, 12:195-216


Robin, A. et al. (1999). A controlled comparison of family versus individual psychotherapy for adolescents with anorexia nervosa. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38:1482-1489.


Rost, F., Luyten, P.J., Fearon, R.M.P. & Fonagy, P;.(2019) Personality and outcome in individuals with treatment-resistant depression – exploring differential treatment effects in the Tavistock Adult Depression Study (TADS). Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology (In press).


Roth, A. & Fonagy, P. (1996) What works for whom? A critical review of psychotherapy research. Guilford Press. New York.


Rustin, M. (2006) Infant observation research: What have we learned so far? Infant Observation, Vol. 9, No. 1. 35–52.


Sandell, R., Lazar, A., Grant, J., Carlsson, J., Schubert, J. & Falkenström, F. Stockholm Outcome of Psychotherapy and Psychoanalysis Project (STOPPP) http://www.ipa.org.uk/research/sandell.asp


Sandell, R., Blomberg, J., Lazar, A., Carlsson, J., Broberg, J. and Schubert, J. (2000). Varieties of long-term outcome among patients in psychoanalysis and long-term psychotherapy. International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, Oct;81 ( Pt 5):921-42


Sandell, R. et al (2000) Varieties of long-term outcome among patients in psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic psychotherapy. International Journal of Psychoanalysis. 81:921


Sandell, R. (2009). From Psychoanalytic Narrative to Empirical Single Case Research. Implications for Psychoanalytic Practice In Kächele, H., Schachter, J. & Thomä, H. (eds.). New York/London: Routledge, 2009. Scandinavian Psychoanalytic Review, 32(2):141-142


Schachter, A. (2009). The adult outcome of child psychoanalysis: A long-term follow-up study. Unpublished PhD thesis, University College, London.


Schachter, A., & Target, M. (2009). The adult outcome of child psychoanalysis: the Anna Freud Centre long-term follow-up study. In N. Midgley et al. (Eds.), Child psychotherapy and research: new approaches, emerging findings. London: Routledge.


Schore, A.N. (2002). Advances in neuropsychoanalysis, attachment theory, and trauma research. Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 22:433-484.


Sebek, M. (2001). Varieties of long-term outcome among patients in psychoanalysis and long-term psychotherapy: A review of findings in the ‘Stockholm Outcome of Psychoanalysis and Psychotherapy Project’ (Stopp) by Rolf Sandell et al”. International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 82:205-210.


Shapiro, D. A., Barkham, M., Hardy, G, E. & Morrison, L.A. (1990) The second Sheffield psychotherapy project: Rationale, design and preliminary outcome data. British Journal of Medical Psychology. Vol 63(2):97-108.


Shapiro, D. A., Barkham, M., Rees, A., Hardy, G, E, et al. (1994) Effects of treatment duration and severity of depression on the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral and psychodynamic-interpersonal psychotherapy. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology. Vol 62(3):522-534.


Shapiro, D. A., & Firth, J. (1987) Prescriptive v. exploratory psychotherapy: Outcomes of the Sheffield Psychotherapy Project. British Journal of Psychiatry. Vol 151:790-799. Royal College of Psychiatrists, England


Shapiro, D. A., Firth, J. (1987) Prescriptive v. exploratory psychotherapy: Outcomes of the Sheffield Psychotherapy Project. British Journal of Psychiatry. Vol 151, 790-799. Royal College of Psychiatrists, England.


Shapiro, D. A. & Firth-Cozens, J. (1990) Two-year follow-up of the Sheffield Psychotherapy Project. British Journal of Psychiatry. Vol 157:389-391.


Shapiro, D A., Barkham, M., Rees, A., Hardy, G. E., et al. (1994) Effects of treatment duration and severity of depression on the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral and psychodynamic-interpersonal psychotherapy. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology. Vol 62(3):522-534.


Shapiro, D. A., Rees, A., Barkham, M. & Hardy, G. (1995) Effects of treatment duration and severity of depression on the maintenance of gains after cognitive-behavioral and psychodynamic-interpersonal psychotherapy. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology. Vol 63(3):378-387.


Shapiro, T. & Emde, R.N., Eds. (1995). Research in Psychoanalysis: Process, Development, Outcome. Madison, CT: International Universities Press.


Shedler J. (2010) The Efficacy of Psychodynamic Psychotherapy. Psychology Review, 25: 459–486.


Shedler J. (2015) Where is the evidence for “evidence-based” therapy? Journal of Psychological Therapies in Primary Care, 4:47–59.


Siefert, C. J., Hilsenroth, M. J., Weinberger, J.,  Blagys, M. D. & Ackerman, S. J. (2006) The relationship of patient defensive functioning and alliance with therapist technique during short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy. 13: 20–33.


Solms, M. (2018). The scientific standing of psychoanalysis. BJPsych International, 15(1), 5-8.   


Solms, M. & Turnbull, O. (2002). The Brain and the inner world. An introduction to the neuroscience of subjective relationship. New York: Other Press.


Spielman, R. (2003) Research review. Psychoanalysis Downunder – The Online Journal of The Australian Psychoanalytical Society


Stevenson, J. & Meares, R. (1992) An outcome study of psychotherapy for patients with borderline personality disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry. Vol 14 (3):358-362.


Stevenson, J. & Meares, . (1999) Psychotherapy with borderline patients: II. A preliminary cost benefit study. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 33:473–477.


Szapocznik, J. et al. (1989). Structural family versus psychodynamic child therapy for problematic Hispanic boys. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57:571-578.

Target, M. & Fonagy, P. (1994a). The efficacy of psychoanalysis for children with emotional disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 33:361–371.


Target, M. & Fonagy, P. (1994b). The efficacy of psychoanalysis for children: Prediction of outcome in a developmental context. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 33:1134-1144.


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Last updated May 2019